Appendix 3.

 

The data from papers which purport to determine the changes in body composition at various fat levels (expressed as mean fat weight – MFW) with various diets. Forty one of these are the references quoted as the basis of Figures 11a and 11b In the Prentice et al (1991) paper (including those in the original Forbes (1987) paper). The remainder come from other papers between 1960 and 2000 which are reputed to provide equivalent data.

 

Table Appendix 3a gives a summary of the basic information about the study. It specifically summarises whether the study abides by the criteria defined at the July SCOOP Meeting, why it must be rejected on the basis of these criteria, or whether (“Provisional”) it abides by the criteria, save that it is a study of a food based diet between 800 and 1200kcal.

 

ID

No subj

M/F

kcals

Prot g

CHO g

Fat g

BMI

Method

Coxon et al, 1989

Reject

Bioelect imped, inadequate data

1 A

12

0/12

405/

42/

44

8

>30

Futrex

1 B

14

0/14

800

+

+

+

>30

Futrex

Foster & Wadden,1990

Provisional

24 week study, food based

2

8

NS

1000-1200

60-75

150-180

10-13

NS

Densitometry Brozek/Siri

Wirth et al,

Reject

No densitometry, Food based study

3 D

20

10/10

300 (food)

C 35

C 20

C 10

>30

Fat layer by phased array scanning

3 D+E

20

10/10

300 (food)

C 35

C 20

C 10

30-45

Fat layer by phased array scanning

Barrows & Snook, 1987

Reject

Mean length 18 weeks (13-22), poor weight loss

4

14

NS

420

70

30

 

 

Densitometry with skinfold correction

Pavlou et al 1989

Reject

No densitometry, food based

5 D+E

15

0/15

1000

 

 

 

 

Impedence

5 D

16

0/16

1000

 

 

 

 

Impedence

Alban Davies et al, 1989

Reject

No densitometry, ­800Diet made with skimmed milk (K load)

6 (330)

8

0/8

330

34

44

3

39

40K count

6 (780)

8

0/8

780

63

85

17

39

40K count

Saris & van Dale 1989

Accept

 

7 D

34

45/17

714

51.6

75.5

21.7

?32

Densitometry

7 D+E

28

714

51.6

75.5

21.7

Densitometry

Heymsfield et al

Provisional

Food based, incomplete data

8 D

5

0/5

900

47

110

30

>30

Densitometry

8 D+E

6

0/6

900

47

110

30

>30

Densitometry

Hensen et al 1987

Reject

3 week periods only

9

7

?

800

76

122

1

>29.5

Bioelectrical impedance & skinfold

Hill et al 1987

Accept

 

10 D

3

0/3

800

44

95

27

30-39

Densitometry

10 D+E

5

0/5

800

44

95

27

30-39

Densitometry

Valtuena et al 1995

Accept

Also comparison with other determinations

11

9

0/9

458

52

46

6.5

43.6

Densit – Siri/ Bioelectr/ Nitrogen

Van Gaal et al 1992

Reject

Varying food diet for 3 months – poor weight loss

12

112

0/112

418 +food

50

79

1

38.1

Densitometry – Brozek

Weck et al

Reject

No data to determine mean fat weight

13 A

5

0/5

330

33

42

3

I >1.5

Tritiated water + micro Kjeldall

13 B

5

0/5

334

34

36

5

 

Tritiated water + micro Kjeldall

Van Gaal et al 1985

Reject

No densitometry

14

15

2/13

500

60

54

5

39.8

Skinfold + micro Kjeldall

Foster et al 1992

Reject

Tests done after 8 weeks re-feeding

15

68

?

3 various VL

 

 

 

 

Densitometry

Bogardus et al 1981

Provisional

Both were food based diets

16 A

4

0/4

830 (food)

73

74

27

25-39

Densitometry

16 B

4

0/4

830 (food)

73

2

59

25-39

Densitometry

Lantigua et al 1980

Reject

Hydrolysed collagen – inappropriate diet

17

6

1/5

300 (food)

 

 

 

 

 

Brown et al, 1983

Reject

Adolescents – no densitometry

18

8

4/4

492-709

>84

>36

>2.4

>30

40K count

Ballor et al 1988

Provisional

Food based

19 D

10

0/10

1200-1500 f

>81

>150

>31

?

Densitometry – Siri

19 DE

10

0/10

1200-1500 f

>81

>150

>31

?

Densitometry – Siri

Donnelly et al 1991

Accept

 

20D

26

0/26

519

50

79

1

M38

Densitometry – Brozek

20DE

16

0/16

519

50

79

1

M38

Densitometry – Brozek

20DW

18

0/18

519

50

79

1

M38

Densitometry – Brozek

20DEW

9

0/9

519

50

79

1

M38

Densitometry – Brozek

Hoie et al 1993

Reject

Futrex data only

21 F

86

?

430

61.5

30.5

6

25-51

Futrex 5000

21 M

47

?

430

61.5

30.5

6

25-51

Futrex 5000

21 All

133

?

430

61.5

30.5

6

25-51

Futrex 5000

Vansant et al, 1989

Reject

Food based, six months diet with limited data

22

15

14/1

675-720 f

 

 

 

M38.5

Impedence

Donnelly et al, 1994

Accept

 

23

112

0/112

418

50

79

1

M38.1

Densitometry – Brozek

De Groot et al,

Provisional

Food based

24 A

5

0/5

1090 f

 

 

 

M27.8

Densitometry

24 B

5

0/5

1180 f

 

 

 

M27.8

Densitometry

24 C

5

0/5

1147 f

 

 

 

M27.8

Densitometry

24 D

5

0/5

997 f

 

 

 

M27.8

Densitometry

Hammer et al, 1989

Provisional

Food based

25 D

8

0/8

C800 f

 

 

 

M32.2

Densitometry – Brozek

25 DE

6

0/6

C800 f

 

 

 

M32.2

Densitometry – Brozek

Deurenberg et al, 1989

Provisional

Food based

26 A

13

 

1000 f

50

125

33

 

Densitometry

26 B

13

 

1000 f

50

125

33

 

Bioelectrical

Passmore et al, 1958

Provisional

Food based

27

7

2/5

C400 f

C25

C40

C15

 

?

Leiter et al, 1982

Reject

Starvation – hunger strikers, no real data

28

10

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Yang & Van Itallie,

Reject

10 days only – Kjeldall only

29

6

 

800

 

 

 

 

Kjeldall

Kamrath et al, 1992

Reject

Futrex only used

30

11

 

605

70

70

 

 

Futrex-500

Ballor et al, 1990

Provisional

Food based

31 DE+

14

0/14

1200 f

60

155

34

 

Densitometry – Siri

31 DE

13

0/13

1200 f

60

155

34

 

Densitometry – Siri

Fricker et al, 1991

Reject

3 weeks only

32

6

0/6

variable

 

 

 

30-38

Bioelectrical impedence + Kjeldall

Donnelly, Jacobsen et al 1994

Accept

Note – figures read from charts

33 D

24

0/24

520

50

79

1

 

Densitometry – Brozek

33 DE

16

0/16

520

50

79

1

 

Densitometry – Brozek

33 DT

24

0/24

520

50

79

1

 

Densitometry – Brozek

33 DET

18

0/18

520

50

79

1

 

Densitometry – Brozek

33 D4e

9

0/9

520

50

79

1

 

Densitometry – Brozek

33 DT4E

11

0/11

520

50

79

1

 

Densitometry – Brozek

Bjorntorp et al, 1975

Reject

Food based, 28 (15-48 weeks)

34

28

0/28

1100

66

127

34

 

 40K

Vaswani et al, 1983

Reject

Food based, not densitometry

35 A

10

0/10

800

70

10

75

>130%

Various not densitometry

35 B

7

0/7

800

70

70

38

>130%

Various not densitometry

Warnold et al, 1978

Reject

Food  variable amount, not densitometry

36

8

0/8

800-1100

 

 

 

 

Various not densitometry

Bessard et al 1983

Reject

Variable food, skinfold measurement

37

5

0/5

variable

 

 

 

152%+

Skinfold

Young et al 1971

Reject

Diet interrupted in middle by vacation

38 A

 

 

1800

 

104

 

 

Densitometry, skinfold

38 B

 

 

1800

 

60

 

 

Densitometry, skinfold

38 C

 

 

1800

 

30

 

 

Densitometry, skinfold

Ravussin et al, 1985

Reject

Food variable length, variable amount

39

7

2/5

1000-1500

 

 

 

 

Skinfold

Belko et al, 1985

Provisional

Food

40 A

5

0/5

1250

 

 

 

115+

Densitometry

40 B

5

0/5

1250

 

 

 

115+

Densitometry

Stallings et al, 1992

Reject

“variable compliance” Adolescents

41 A

7

2/5

800/850

Variable

 

 

 

Skinfold

41 B

7

2/5

800/850

Variable

 

 

 

40K

41 C

7

2/5

800/850

Variable

 

 

 

 18O – H­2O

Dore et al

Reject

Food, no details, 1 year diet

42

19

0/19

No details

 

 

 

 

40K

Phinney et al

Reject

Food based

43

6

1/5

500-750

2g/kg

 

 

 

 

Jacobsen et al, 1964

Provisional

Food based, adolescents

44 A

20

 

1100-1350

C 170

 

 

 

Densitometry

44 B

20

 

1100-1350

C 170

 

 

 

Densitometry

Welle et al

Reject

Not densitometry

45

6

0/6

400

70

30

1

168%

 40K

Jebb et al 1993

Reject

12 days only, Food

46

3

0/3

830

 

 

 

20.4+

Fat balance

Belko et al, 1987

Provisional

Food based

47 D

5

0/5

C1200

 

C 160-180

 

 

Densitometry

47 D+E

6

0/6

C 1200

 

C 160-180

 

 

Densitometry

Heshka et al, 1990

Reject

Food various amounts, 9 to 42 months

48

35

 

various

 

 

 

M36.3

40 K

Hendler et al, 1988

Reject

3 weeks only

49 A

9

0/9

436

45

54

2

>45

Urinary creatinine + Kjeldall

49 B

8

0/8

439

105

2

2

>45

Urinary creatinine + Kjeldall

Elliott et al, 1989

Reject

Food, variable length, ? post test taken 4 weeks post diet.

50

7

0/7

C 300

C 45

 

 

37.6

Densitometry

Ditschuneit et al, 1983

Accept

 

51

10

0/10

444

50

45

7

 

Densitometry

Kreitzman et al, 1993

Accept

 

52

10

0/10

405

42

44

8

32.1

Densitometry, various

Archibold et al 1983

Reject

Food based, adolescents, 10 received extra K

53 A

17

4/13

687-1192

2.4/kg

 

 

 

Skin fold, 

53 B

7

?

687-1192

2.4/kg

 

 

 

40 K

Lohman

Reject

Review only, no data

54

 

 

 

 

Barnard et al 1969

Reject

Effect of fasting only

55

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Woo et al,1982

Reject

Normal diet, effect of exercise only

56

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gray et al 1989

Reject

Just obesity, no information on dieting

57

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Keys et al,1950

Prov

Minnesota study – see text

58

32

32/0

1569

Food

 

 

21.7

Densitometry

Van dale & Saris, 1989

Accept

 

59A

7

0/7

722

51.6

75.5

21.7

33.7

Densitometry

59B

7

0/7

813

52.0

94.0

25.0

33.7

Densitometry

Atomi et al, 1987

Prov

Food based

60

8

0/8

1200

60

 

 

 

Densitometry

Nieman et al, 1988

?Prov

3 of group ? which , skinfold only*

61 D

10

 

1300

Food

 

 

30

Densitometry*

61 DE

11

 

1300

Food

 

 

30

Densitometry*

Rath et al,  1964

Prov

Food based – various procedures

62 D

16

0/16

1200

90

120

40

 

Densitometry

62 D+T

 

 

1200

90

120

40

 

Densitometry

62 DE

 

 

1200

90

120

40

 

Densitometry

Young et al

Reject

10 day holiday in middle of study

63

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Wadden, Foster et al 1990

Prov

17 weeks

64

9

0/9

420

70

30

2

39.7

Densitometry

Wadden & Stunkard 1986 & 1988

Reject

The basic data is not clear on composition

65

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table Appendix 3b gives the data on which the Forbes/Prentice type graph can be established. “Accepted” and “Provisional” ratios and MFW are shown bold. This is the data used for Figures 4 and 5.

 

ID

Pre Wt

Post Wt

D Wt

Pre Fat

Post Fat

D Fat

Pre FFM

Post FFM

D FFM

DFFM/D Wt

Mean Fat

Coxon et al 1989

Reject

8 weeks

No densitometry, negligible data

Impedence

Prentice

1 (405)

 

 

-15.4

 

 

 

 

 

-6.4

-0.42

 

1 (800)

 

 

-9.0

 

 

 

 

 

-4.0

-0.44

 

Foster & Wadden 1990

Prov

24 weeks

Food based – 24 weeks, 1200kcal

Densitometry

Prentice

2

106.9

95.6

-11.3

54.7

45.1

-9.6

52.2

50.5

-1.7

-0.15

49.9

Wirth et al,

Reject

4 weeks

No densitometry, mixed food diet, 300kcal

Fat layer measure

Prentice

3 DO

102.5

93.7

-8.8

29.9

24.3

-5.6

72.6

69.4

-3.2

-0.36

27.1

3 D+E

95.7

84.6

-11.1

25.6

18.3

-7.3

70.1

66.3

-3.8

-0.34

21.9

Barrows et al 1987

Reject

Me 18 w

22 weeks study, poor weight loss, 420 kcal

Densitometry

Prentice

4

85.8

67.2

-19.9

38.4

23.0

-15.4

47.3

44.2

-3.1

-0.16

30.7

Pavlou et al, 1989

Reject

8 weeks

No densitometry, food based, 1000kcal

Impedence

Prentice

5 D

75.5

67.7

-4.47

24.8

18.3

-6.56

50.7

49.4

-1.3

-0.02

21.5

5 D+E

79.3

73.0

-6.3

29.5

24.0

-5.5

49.8

49.0

-0.8

- 0.13

26.7

Alb Davies et al, 1989

Reject

8 weeks

No densitometry, 780kcal problem with K

40 K

Prentice

6 (330)

103

87

-15.7

53.6

44.2

-9.4

49.4

43.1

-6.3

-0.40

49.1

6 (780)

100

88

-11.8

51.6

43.0

-8.6

48.4

45.2

-3.2

-0.28

47.3

Saris et al 1989

Accept

5 weeks

714 kcals, formula based

Densitometry

Prentice

7 D

90.4

80.8

-9.6

34.5

27.2

-7.3

55.9

53.6

-2.3

-0.24

30.85

7 D+E

93.9

82.9

-11.0

36.4

27.4

-9.0

57.5

55.5

-2.0

-0.18

31.9

Heymefield et al

Prov

33 days

Food based 900kcals

Densitometry

Prentice

8 D

 

 

-7.0

 

 

-4.4

 

 

-2.6

-0.37

 

8 D+E

 

 

-7.5

 

 

-5.3

 

 

-2.2

-0.29

 

Hensen et al, 1987

Reject

3 weeks

No densitometry, 3 weeks only, 800kcal

Skinfold, Impedence

Prentice

9

 

 

-4.1

 

 

-0.7

 

 

-0.7

-0.17

 

Hill et al, 1987

Accept

5 weeks

800kcals, formula based

Densitometry

Prentice

10 Da

102.9

92.6

-10.3

47.7

41.2

-5.5

55.2

51.4

-3.8

-0.37

43.9

10 Db

88.2

81.5

-6.7

36.8

33.6

-3.2

51.4

47.9

-3.5

-0.52

35.2

10 Dc

98.8

92.0

-6.8

44.2

40.3

-3.9

54.6

51.7

-2.9

-0.43

42.3

10 D Me

96.6

88.7

-7.9

42.9

38.4

-4.5

53.7

50.3

-3.4

-0.41

40.6

10 Dea

109.4

101.1

+1.7

52.1

47.1

-5.0

51.4

54.1

+2.7

+1.60

49.6

10 Deb

94.4

87.8

-6.6

47.3

42.6

-4.7

47.1

45.2

-1.9

-0.26

45.0

10 Dec

97.5

88.6

-8.9

33.1

29.6

-3.5

64.4

59.0

-5.4

-0.60

31.3

10 Ded

97,7

86.8

-10.9

47.0

38.2

-8.8

50.7

48.6

-2.1

-0.19

42.6

10 Dee

93.8

87.3

-6.5

37.0

31.8

-5.2

56.8

55.5

-1.3

-0.20

34.4

10DE Me

98.6

90.3

-8.3

43.3

37.9

-5.5

54.1

52.5

-2.6

-0.31

 

Valtuena et al, 1995

Accept

4 weeks

458kcals formula

Densitometry

New

11a

122.2

114.4

-7.8

60.1

52.3

-7.8

62.1

61.9

-0.2

-0.03

56.1

11b

120

110.1

-7.9

55.4

48.7

-6.7

64.6

61.4

-3.2

-0.32

52.0

11c

135.8

125.2

-10.6

71.6

67.7

-3.9

64.2

57.5

-6.7

-0.63

69.7

11d

114.3

108.3

-6.0

61.1

57.2

-3.9

53.2

51.2

-2.1

-0.35

59.2

11e

116.9

108.7

-8.2

57.7

51.1

-5.6

59.2

56.6

-2.6

-0.32

53.9

11f

115.2

107.6

-7.6

55.4

50.1

-5.3

59.8

57.5

-2.3

-0.28

52.7

11g

89.9

82.6

-7.3

42.1

37.5

-4.6

47.8

45.1

-2.7

-0.36

39.8

11h

94.1

87.6

-6.5

46.5

41.6

-4.9

47.6

46.0

-1.6

-0.25

46.0

11I

114.7

103.0

-11.7

53.8

46.9

-6.9

60.9

56.1

-4.8

-0.41

50.4

11 Mean

113.7

105.3

-8.4

56.0

50.5

-5.5

57.7

54.8

-2.9

-0.35

50.4

Van Gaal et al

Reject

14 weeks

No densitometry, variable food 500 then 700 kcal

Impedence

New

12

97.0

81.4

-15.6

49.5

35.6

-13.9

47.5

45.8

-1.7

-0.11

42.6

Weck et al

Reject

4 weeks

No densitometry, inadequate data (330 & 334 kcal)

Tritiated water

New

13 (330)

96.7

 

-10.0

 

 

-5.1

 

 

-4.9

-0.49

 

13 (334)

99.3

 

-9.7

 

 

-7.2

 

 

-2.6

-0.28

 

Van Gaal et al, 1985

Reject

6 weeks

No densitometry – 500kcal

Skinfold

New

14

110.4

96.0

-14.4

55.8

41.1

-14.7

54.6

54.6

0

0

48.4

Foster et al, 1992

Reject

12 weeks

Post test after 8 weeks refeeding (240, 660 & 800 kcal)

Densitometry

New

15

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bogardus et al 1981

Prov

6 weeks

Food diet 830 kcal

Densitometry

Forbes

16 Aa

63.3

58.1

-5.2

22.2

18.8

-3.4

41.1

39.3

-1.7

-0.35

20.5

16 Ab

65.1

59.6

-5.5

25.4

20.6

-4.8

39.7

39.0

-0.7

-0.12

23.0

16 Ac

95,6

85.6

-10.0

39.2

33.5

-5.7

56.4

52.1

-4.3

-0.43

36.3

16 Ad

85.4

76.7

-8.7

35.0

29.6

-5.4

50.4

47.1

-3.3

-0.38

32.3

16 Ba

78.6

70.2

-8.4

32.2

27.1

-5.1

46.4

43.1

-3.3

-0.39

29.6

16 Bb

67.6

60.6

-7.0

21.0

16.5

-4.5

46.6

44.1

-2.5

-0.35

18.7

16 Bc

106.4

97.0

-9.4

50.0

40.5

-9.5

56.4

56.5

+0.1

+0.02

45.2

16 Bd

81.1

72.3

-8.8

30.0

26.1

-3.9

51.1

46.2

-4.9

-0.56

28.1

16 A Me

77.4

70.0

-7.4

30.2

25.4

-4.8

47.2

44.6

-2.6

-0.35

27.8

16 B Me

83.4

75.0

-8.4

32.5

26.8

-5.7

50.9

48.2

-2.7

-0.32

29.6

Lantigua et al 1980

Reject

40 days

Hydrolysed collagen, 300kcal

 

Forbes

17

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Brown et al

Reject

5 weeks

No densitometry, adolescents, 504 kcal

 40K

Forbes

18a

143

130

-13.0

86.2

75.8

-10.4

56.8

54.2

-2.6

-0.20

81.0

18b

174

159

-15.0

105.8

87.6

-18.2

68.2

61.4

-6.8

-0.45

96.7

18c

149

131

-18.0

82.8

67.4

-15.4

66.2

63.6

-2.6

-0.14

75.1

18d

108

97

-11.0

48.3

44.2

-4.1

59.7

52.8

-6.9

-0.63

46.2

18e

133

120

-13.0

65.1

56.4

-8.7

67.9

63.6

-4.3

-0.33

60.7

18f

124

110

-14.0

58.8

48.8

-10.0

66.2

61.2

-5.0

-0.36

53.8

18g

126

111

-15.0

64.9

52.2

-12.7

61.1

58.8

-2.3

-0.15

58.5

18h

111

100

-11.0

56.2

52.5

-3.7

54.8

47.5

-7.5

-0.68

54.3

18 Mean

133

120

-13.5

71.0

60.6

-10.4

62.6

58.0

-4.7

-0.35

67.7

Ballor et al 1988

Prov

8 weeks

Food based diet  c1200-1500 kcal

Densitometry – Siri

Prentice

19 D

75.19

70.72

-4.47

27.46

23.90

-3.56

47.73

46.82

-0.91

-0.20

25.7

19 DE

77.53

73.64

-3.89

29.91

25.59

-4.32

47.62

48.05

+0.43

+0.11

27.5

Donnelly et al 1991

Accept

90 days

519 kcal – exercise various

Densitometry – Brozek

New

20 D

105.3

84.9

-20.4

49.9

33.8

-16.1

55.3

50.6

-4.7

-0.22

41.8

20 DE

99.9

78.5

-21.4

46.6

30.0

-16.6

53.3

48.5

-4.8

-0.22

38.3

20 WT

101.7

80.8

-20.9

46.9

30.8

-16.1

54.7

50.0

-4.7

-0.22

38.8

20 EWT

100.3

77.4

-22.9

46.9

28.9

-18.0

53.3

49.2

-4.1

-0.18

37.9

Hoie et al

Reject

8 weeks

No densitometry – 430 Kcal

Futrex 5000

New

21 F

94.6

83.5

-11.1

40.3

31.8

-8.5

54.3

51.7

-2.6

-0.23

36.0

21 M

110.3

94.6

-15.7

39.2

27.9

-11.3

71.1

66.7

-4.4

-0.28

33.6

21 All

100.1

87.4

-12.7

39.9

30.4

-9.5

60.2

57.0

-3.2

-0.25

35.1

Vansant et al 1989

Reject

6 months

No densitometry, 700kcal, poor data

Impedence

Prentice

22

 

 

 

 

 

 

49.6

47.1

-2.5

 

 

Donnelly et al, 1994

Accept

12 weeks

418 kcal, some exercise

Densitometry

New

23

103

82.2

-20.8

48.2

31.5

-16.7

54.8

50.7

-4.1

-0.19

39.8

De Groot et al

Reject

4 weeks

Food based, 1090,1180,1147 & 997 kcal

Densitometry

Prentice

24 A

77.3

71.7

-5.6

31.3

26.2

-5.1

40.0

45.5

-0.5

-0.09

28.7

24 B

73.0

68.5

-4.5

27.6

22.8

4.8

45.4

43.7

-1.7

-0.37

25.2

24 C

86.2

80.2

-6.0

36.1

31.2

-4.9